逗點謬誤的句子
Run-on Sentences

 


一個 Run-on Sentence 至少包含兩個獨立子句 (independent clauses),但它們沒有被適當地連接起來。在此,我們亦對兩個獨立子句之間的標點符號作一說明。


1. 我們必須瞭解的一點是,句子的長短實際上與句子是否 run-on 無關;run-on 的句子是屬於句子結構的瑕疵、錯誤,即使非常簡短的句子亦將受到危害。

The sun is high, put on some sun-block.

反之,一個相當長的句子可能讓你讀的喘不過氣來,但它可能是個結構健全、完整的句子。按這裡看看一個239個字的句子:這是一個結構非常美好的句子。
 
2. 當兩個獨立子句僅用一個逗點來連接時,它們就構成所謂 comma-splice or comma fault (用逗點分開兩個對等子句的錯誤) 的 run-on sentence。上面的例子就是 comma-splice。當你用逗點來分開兩個獨立子句時,逗點的後面必須接 and, but, for, nor, yet, or, so 等連接詞。

The sun is high, so put on some sun-screen.
 
3. run-on sentences 通常發生在下列情況下:
a. 當一個獨立子句根據前一個獨立子句所說的而下達命令或指令時:

This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it, you should start   studying right away.

我們可以將這個句子中的逗點改為句點 (‧ period) 然後開始一個新的句子或改為分號 (;semicolon)。
 
b. 當兩個獨立子句使用 however, moreover, nevertheless 等連接副詞 (conjunctive adverbs) 來連接時:

Mr. Nguyen has sent his four children to ivy-league colleges, however, he  has sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery.

同樣地,第一個逗點應改為句點,然後開始一個新的句子,或改為分號 。
 
c. 當兩個獨立子句中的第二個子句包含一個代表第一個獨立子句的代名詞時:

This computer doesn't make sense to me, it came without a manual.

雖然這兩個子句相當簡短,而且關係相當密切,但卻是個 run-on sentence。我們必須以句點來取代逗點。

 
這是一個好句子的例子,由239個字所構成。雖然我們不會經常看到這種句子,但它可是寫得非常好。切記,這不是一個 run-on sentence。這個「可怕的」句子只有一個獨立子句,主詞為 Carl Lewis,動詞為 made。
Knowing that millions of people around the world would be watching in person and on television and expecting great things from him -- at least one more gold medal for America, if not another world record -- during this, his fourth and surely his last appearance in the World Olympics, and realizing that his legs could no longer carry him down the runway with the same blazing speed and confidence in making a huge, eye-popping leap that they were capable of a few years ago when he set world records in the 100-meter dash and in the 400-meter relay and won a silver medal in the long jump, the renowned sprinter and track-and-field personality
Carl Lewis, who had known pressure from fans and media before but never, even as a professional runner, this kind of pressure, made
only a few appearances in races during the few months before the Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, partly because he was  afraid of raising expectations even higher and he did not want to be distracted by  interviews and adoring fans who would follow him into stores and restaurants  demanding autographs and photo-opportunities, but mostly because he wanted to  conserve his energies and concentrate, like a martial arts expert, on the job at hand:  winning his favorite competition, the long jump, and bringing home another Gold  Medal for the United States, the most fitting conclusion to his brilliant career in track  and field.

兩個獨立子句之間的標點符號

我們有數個方法可以連接 (或分開__視你的觀點而定) 兩個獨立子句。當你要將兩個觀念結合在一起,或各自獨立來表示時,你可以使用下面的標點符號:

1. 句點 + 一個新的句子

My grandmother refuses to go to bed early. She thinks she's going to miss out on some of the action.
2. 逗點 + 小而美的連接詞 (and, but, for, nor, yet, or, so)

My grandmother refuses to go to bed early, and I'm afraid she's going to catch a bad cold.
3. 僅用分號:與其用分號,不如用句點,但如果你覺得使用分號比較好的話,那麼使用分號亦無妨 (可能是因為兩個獨立子句關係相當密切且非常對等)

In spite of her cold, my mother refuses to go to bed early; she is afraid she will
miss something.
4. 分號 + 大而醜的連接詞或其他連接副詞 (however, moreover, nevertheless,   therefore, as a result, consequently . . . ) + 逗點

My mother has stayed up late four nights in a row; as a result, she cannot seem to get well.

Guide to Grammar and Writing