進行式、狀態與動態動詞
Progressive, Stative, and Dynamic Verbs

 


動詞的進行式是指事情現在、過去或未來「正在」發生。若時間為過去,那麼進行式是指事件持續短暫的時間:"While I was doing my homework, my brother came  into my room." 過去進行式亦暗示過去的某一動作並未全部完成。 (我們可從 "I did  my homework." 和 "I was doing my homework."這兩個句子的比較窺其端倪。) 這在被動進行式結構中更加顯而易見:"He was being strangled in the alley." 顯示動作未完成,可能是因為動作被一位見義勇為的市民所中斷,所以他才未被勒死;而簡單過去式:"He was strangled in the alley." 則顯示動作已完成。可憐的傢伙,真是不幸!

進行式只能發生在動態動詞 (dynamic verbs) -- 亦即性質可以變化的動詞 -- 身上,而狀態動詞 (stative verbs) 則是性質不能變化的動詞。例如,我們不可以說:"He is being tall." 或 "He is resembling his mother." 或 "I am wanting spaghetti for  dinner." 或 "It is belonging to me." (我們應該說: "He is tall."、 "He resembles his  mother."、 "I want spaghetti for dinner." 及 "It belongs to me.") 若要瞭解動態與狀態動詞之間的差異,最佳的方法是畫一個表,將這些動詞列在上面並予以分類,然後用它們來寫一些句子,試著看看可否使用進行式。

動態動詞
動作動詞
I am begging you. I was learning French. They will be playing upstairs..
與簡單式的意思幾乎完全一樣:
I beg you. I learned French. They will play upstairs.
abandon
ask
beg
call
drink
eat
help
learn
listen
look at
play
rain
read
say
slice
throw
whisper
work
write
過程動詞
The corn is growing rapidly. Traffic is slowing down.
與簡單現在式的意思幾乎完全一樣:
The corn grows rapidly. Traffic slows down.
change
deteriorate
grow
mature
slow down widen
身體感覺動詞
"I feel bad" 和 "I am feeling bad" 的意思幾乎完全一樣。
ache feel hurt itch
變動事件動詞
進行式表示事件的開始,與簡單現在式的意思不同。
"She was falling out of bed [when I caught her]" (當她正要掉到床下時,我剛好抓住她)
"She falls out of bed every night." (她每晚都掉到床下)
arrive
die
fall
land
leave lose
瞬間動詞
進行式表示時間短暫且暗示動作重複。
She is hitting her brother.
He is jumping around the house.
hit
jump
kick
knock
nod tap

 
狀態動詞
靜態的感覺和認知動詞*
I detest betel nut,但不是 I am detesting betel nut.
I prefer cinnamon toast,但不是 I am preferring cinnamon toast.
abhor
adore
astonish
believe
desire
detest
dislike
doubt
feel
forgive
guess
hate
hear
imagine
impress
intend
know
like
love
mean
mind
perceive
please
prefer
presuppose
realize
recall
recognize
regard
remember
satisfy
see
smell
suppose
taste
think
understand
want
wish
關係動詞
I am sick,但不是 I am being sick.
I own ten hectares of land,但不是 I am owning ten hectares.
My brother owes me ten dollars" ,但不是 My brother is owing me ten dollars.
be*
belong to
concern
consist of
contain
cost
depend on
deserve
equal
fit
have
include
involve
lack
matter
need
owe
own
possess
require
require
resemble
seem
sound

* 文法專家建議,我們應以「有意志」和「無意志」性質來思考狀態與動態之間的差異。現在讓我們來看看所謂動態形容詞 (主詞補語) 和狀態形容詞 (也是主詞補語) 之間的差異: "I am silly" "I am being silly" 相對於 "I am tall." 我可以作主要不要成為一個愚蠢的人,是我自己選擇了做個愚蠢的人;但我沒辦法自己選擇長得很高。因此,"tall" 具有狀態 (或靜態) 性質,所以我們不可以說 "I am being   tall" ;相對地,"silly" 具有動態性質,所以與這種性質在一起的動詞可以使用進行式。

這亦可適用於動詞。Two plus two equals four 二加二等於四)。equals 是靜態或狀態詞,所以不能有進行式;我們對這種事情沒辦法作選擇,也無法行使意志。(我們不可以說 "Two plus two is equalling four.") 同樣地,名詞亦可以表現有意志和無意志的性質。是故,"She is being a good worker" (因為他選擇讓自己成為優秀的勞工 -- 這是他自己做出的決定,即意志的行使),但我們必須這麼說 "She is (不是 is being) an Olympic  athlete" (因為一旦她成為選手,她就不必再行使意志使自己成為選手了)。
 

Guide to Grammar and Writing