片語花園
The Garden of Phrases

 


一個片語是一組不含主詞和動詞的相關字。(如果這組相關字包含主詞和動詞,那麼它被視為子句。) 英文有數種不同的片語。瞭解片語的結構組成以及它們在句子中的作用和功能,可提升我們寫出結構完整、句型富變化之句子的信心。

名詞片語 介系詞片語 同位格片語

獨立片語 (獨立分詞片語)

不定詞片語 動名詞片語

分詞片語


名詞片語 (Noun Phrase)
一個名詞片語包含一個名詞 (這還用說嗎!?) 和任何相關的修飾語:
  • The long and winding road
  • A noun phrase
  • any associated modifiers

講到名詞片語,有件事我們要必須注意,那就是冗長的複合名詞片語;這種片語有時被稱為「堆積」或「擁擠」(stacked or packed) 名詞片語。我們經常會見到一個名詞修飾另一個名詞:student body, book cover, water commission. 但當我們創造了一長串當形容詞用的名詞 (attributive nouns) 或修飾語時,我們也成為「問題的製造者」:

  • People who author web-pages have become aware  of what is now known as the uniform resource  locator protocol problem.

在這個句子中,我們真的難以瞭解那個名詞修飾那個名詞。再者,讀者一直在期待字串的結束,因此句子的能量 (和我們的注意力) 無法集中,重點強調不出來。在科技文章的寫作中,這種片語特別常見。一般而言,一個冗長複合名詞片語的解決之道是,將字串的最後一個名詞拿到句子的開頭並將至少一個修飾用的名詞變成介系詞片語 (這是一種把句子變得長一點可能比較好的情況):

  • The problem with the protocol of uniform resource  locators is now recognized by people who author  web-pages as. . .

呼格或稱呼語 (vocative)通常是名詞單字,但具有名詞片語形式 。稱呼語都被視為插入語句,因此以一個逗點或一對逗點 (如果它出現在句子中間的話) 與句子其他部分分開。稱呼語與副詞一樣,幾乎可以出現在句子的任何地方。然而,別養成在人名的地方加逗點的習慣;除非某一名字指的是甫被稱呼的某人,否則它並非稱呼語,因此就不必以插句的形式存在:

  • He told Jorge to turn the boat around.
  • Jorge, turn the boat around.

稱呼語大致可分為四種:

1. 有頭銜或沒有頭銜的單名:Mr. Valdez, Dr. Valdez, Uncle, Grandma. "Dr.  Valdez, will you please address the graduates?"
2. 人稱代名詞 you (不是一種禮貌的稱呼):"You, put down that gun!" 第二人稱代名詞通常與其他字合用,但結果往往相當粗魯無禮,因此從不在正式文章中使用 ("You over there, hurry up!"  "You with the purple hair and silver nose  rings, get back in line!")
不定代名詞 (indefinite pronoun;如 some, any, somebody 等)也可作為稱呼語:"Call an ambulance, somebody!"  "Quick,  anybody! Give me a hand!" 
3. 親愛的稱呼語 (Darling, Sweetheart, Love, My dear):"Come sit next to me, my  dear."
尊敬的稱呼語 (Sir, Madam, Your Honor, Ladies and gentlemen):"I would ask   you, Sir, never to do that again."
職業或地位的稱呼語 (Professor, Mr. President, Madam Chairman, Coach):Please, Coach, let me play for a while.
4. 名詞子句 (nominal clause):Whoever is making that noise, stop it now.

 
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介系詞片語 (Prepositional Phrase)
一個介系詞片語包含一個介系詞、一個做為介系詞之受詞的名詞或代名詞 以及 (經常有的情況) 一個或兩個修飾受詞的形容詞。

介系詞片語通常在敘述時間或地點:"in forty minutes," "in the sun, against the side, 等等" 。但介系詞片語也可做其他功能:Except Jo, the children were   remarkably like their father.

一個句子開頭的介系詞片語是一種前導修飾語 (introductory modifier),後面通常接一個逗點;然而,除非前導介系詞片語很長,否則我們鮮少在其後加逗點。

你們可能已知悉以介係詞做句子的結尾係嚴重違反文法規則。然而,它是一個很容易讓人「上癮」的寫作規則。雖然我們通常可以輕易地修正此一違反文法的介系詞,但有時則不能,因為修改的結果有時會產生笨拙的句子。根據零碎的歷史先例,這規則本身是最新的寫作規則。不過,不喜歡這個規則的人一定會非常懷念前英國首相,也是1953年諾貝爾文學獎得主的邱吉爾的一句話:"That is nonsense up with which I shall not put." [那 (指上述新規則) 是我無法忍受的胡說八道]。

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同位格片語 (Appositive Phrase)
同位格片語係它前面緊鄰的一個字的補充、說明和舖陳。我們通常使用另一種片語來做為同位格片語。
  • My favorite teacher, a fine chess player in her own right, has won several  state-level tournaments. [名詞片語當同位格片語]
  • The best exercise, walking briskly, is also the least expensive. [動名詞片語當同位格片語]
  • Tashonda's goal in life, to become an occupational therapist, is within her  grasp this year, at last. [不定詞片語當同位格片語]

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獨立片語 (Absolute Phrase)
一個獨立片語 (亦稱為獨立分詞 nominative absolute -- 有人稱為"獨立主格" -- 片語)通常是 (並非總是)一組包含一個名詞或代名詞和一個分詞以及任何相關修飾語的字。獨立片語並非修飾主句中某一特定字,且跟它們都沒有直接關係;反之,獨立片語係修飾整個句子、附加資料。它們都被視為插入語句,因此用一個逗點或一對逗點 [有時是一個破折號 (--) 或一對破折號] 與句子的其他部分分開。注意:獨立片語包含一個主詞 (通常被分詞所修飾),但不含真正的動詞。
  • Their reputation as winners secured by victory, the New York Liberty   charged into the semifinals.
  • The season nearly finished, Rebecca Lobo and Sophie Witherspoon emerged as true leaders.
  • The two superstars signed autographs into the night, their faces  beaming happily.

當獨立片語的分詞是 to be 的型態時,如 beinghaving been,這個分詞往往被省略,但其意自明。

  • The season [being] over, they were mobbed by fans in Times   Square.
  • [Having been] Stars all their adult lives, they seemed used to   the attention.

另一種獨立片語是位在一個被修飾的名詞後面;它使主要子句語意所強調的重點凸顯出來。這種獨立片語可以介系詞片語、形容詞片語或名詞片語的型態出現。

  • The old firefighter stood over the smoking ruins, his senses alert to  any sign of another flare-up.
  • His subordinates, their faces sweat-streaked and smudged with ash,   leaned heavily against the firetruck.
  • They knew all too well how all their hard work could be undone -- in  an instant.

獨立片語中所提供的資訊有時是句子中最重要的。事實上,在敘述性文章中,最重要的部分往往被 "包裹成"具有獨立片語型態的句子:

  • Coach Nykesha strolled onto the court, her arms akimbo and a large  silver whistle clenched between her teeth.
  • The new recruits stood in one corner of the gym, their uniforms stiff and ill fitting, their faces betraying their anxiety.

名詞片語亦可以獨立片語的形式出現:

  • Your best friends, where are they now, when you need them?
  • And then there was my best friend Sally -- the dear girl -- who has
    certainly fallen on hard times.

參見「錯置的修飾語」所做的解釋可能對你有所幫助,因為弄清楚獨立片語與錯置的修飾語之間的差異是很重要的。

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不定詞片語 (Infinitive Phrase)
一個不定詞片語包含一個不定詞 -- to + 原形動詞 -- 及任何與其相關的修飾語或補語 (complements)。不定詞片語可當作形容詞、副詞和名詞。
  • Her plan to subsidize child care won wide acceptance among urban politicians. [修飾 plan,當作形容詞]
  • She wanted to raise taxes. [名詞 -- 句子的受詞]
  • To watch Uncle Billy tell this story is an eye-opening    experience. [名詞 -- 句子的主詞]
  • To know her is to love her. [名詞,當作主詞補語]
  • Juan went to college to study veterinary medicine. [這個不定詞片語告訴我們 Juan 為何要上大學,所以它是副詞]

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動名詞片語 (Gerund Phrase)
在動名詞片語中,動名詞 (動詞加 ing,當名詞用) 通常與修飾語和補語有關連。這些片語具備名詞的所有功能。注意:其他片語,尤其是介系詞片語,通常是動名詞片語的一部份。
  • Cramming for tests is not a good study strategy. [動名詞片語當主詞]
  • John enjoyed swimming in the lake after dark. [動名詞片語當受詞]
  • I'm really not interested in studying biochemistry for the rest of my  life. [動名詞片語當介系詞 in 的受詞]

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分詞片語 (Participial Phrase)
現在分詞 (動詞加 ing)和過去分詞 [動詞加 ed (對規則動詞而言)或其他型態 (對不規則動詞而言)] 結合補語和修飾語,形成重要的片語結構。分詞片語都是當作形容詞用。當分詞片語放在句子的開頭時,它們通常被一個逗點分開 (做為前導修飾語);否則,如果分詞片語是插入語句,那麼它們要由一對逗點來分開。
  • The stone steps, having been worn down by generations of students,   needed to be replaced. [修飾 "steps"]
  • Working around the clock, the firefighters finally put out the last of   the California brush fires. [修飾 "firefighters"]
  • The pond, frozen over since early December, is now safe for   ice-skating.

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Guide to Grammar and Writing