間接引句的動詞時態
Tenses used in Indirect Speech

 


間接引句 (indirect speech, indirect quotation, reporting speech or reported speech) 都是名詞子句。在英文中,當我們在敘述或引述別人所說的話時,必須注意動詞時態的變化,以符合動詞時態的一致性。在下表中,左邊為引句,即別人所說的話,而右邊為我們事後的敘述;除少數例外,在敘述別人所說的話時必須按表操課,做必要的動詞時式變化。

引句 事後的敘述
現在式 簡單過去式
現在進行式 過去進行式
現在完成式
簡單過去式
過去完成式

過去完成式
簡單未來式 (will) would
未來式 (be going to) was/were going to
語氣助動詞:
can
may (可能性)
may (許可)
will
might
must
have to
should
ought to
shall
shall

could
might
could
would
might
had to
had to
should
ought to
would (未來式)
should (請示)
祈使句 不定詞
yes/no 問句 if + 名詞子句

  

注意:

1. 如果句子的主要動詞為過去式,如 said,則名詞子句的動詞通常為過去式。

2. 如果句子的主要動詞為簡單現在式、現在完成式或未來式,則名詞子句的動詞不動如山,沒有改變。

  • She says, "I wash my hair every day."  She says she washes her hair every day.
  • She has said, "I wash my hair every day."  She has said that she washes her hair every day.
  • She will say, "I wash my hair every day."  She will say that she washes her hair every day.

例外:

1. 如果事後敘述的子句 (名詞子句) 是在敘述一項事實或普遍的真理,那麼現在式要保留 (或可以保留):

She said that the moon causes the tides.

2. 如果說話者所說的話立即或過後不久就被引述,那麼名詞子句的動詞通常維持說話者說話的時態:

A: What did the conductor say?
B: He said that the next stop is Northgate.

3. 如果 will 是事後敘述的子句 (名詞子句)的語氣助動詞且在表達未來時間,而且如果引句中所描述的情況在事後敘述的當時仍然是事實,那麼即使主要動詞為過去式,will 也不可變成 would:

Mr. Arden said that a volcanic eruption will occur next year.

間接引句中時間字詞與地方字詞的變化

now

today

tomorrow

yesterday

next month

next year

last month

last year

in two days(weeks)

five days ago

five weeks ago

here

then, at that time

that day

the following day, the next day, a day later

the previous day, the day before

the following month, the next month, a month later

the following year, the next, year, a year later

the month before, the previous month, the preceding month

the year before, the previous year, the preceding year

two days from then, two weeks from then

five days before, five days earlier

five weeks before, five weeks earlier

there

Guide to Grammar and Writing