動名詞與不定詞的名詞角色
Gerunds and Infinitives: Their Noun Roles

 


動名詞和不定詞皆可當做名詞使用;這意思是說它們具備名詞的所有功能,名詞能做的事,它們也樣樣都會。雖然它們與其他名詞一樣係用來指定事物,但它們通常是指定事件和活動,而非人或物。現在就讓我們來看看動名詞與不定詞的五種名詞用法和一種非名詞用法 -- 形容詞補語。

  1. 主詞:
    1. Playing basketball takes up too much of her time.
    2. To play basketball for UConn is her favorite fantasy.

     

  2. 不定詞可能出現在句子的開頭當主詞 (如 Ib),但更常見的情況是,不定詞做為主詞補語:
    1. Her favorite fantasy is to play basketball for UConn.
      動名詞亦可扮演相同的角色:
    2. Her favorite fantasy is playing basketball for UConn.

     

  3. 這兩種動詞型態亦可扮演名詞補語和同位語的角色:
    1. Her desire to play basketball for UConn became an obsession.
    2. I could never understand her desire to play basketball for UConn.
    3. Her one burning desire in life, playing basketball for UConn,   seemed a goal within reach.

    不定詞通常是用來協助定義一抽象名詞的補語。在此我們以表格方式列出部分抽象名詞,但這已足以顯示它們的特性。你們可以試著在這些名詞後面接不定詞片語來看看不定詞片語如何修飾和強調名詞:their desire to play  in the championship game, a motivation to pass all their courses.

      

    advice
    appeal
    command
    decision
    desire
    fact
    instruction
    motivation
    opportunity
    order
    permission
    plan
    possibility
    preparation
    proposal
    recommendation
    refusal
    reminder
    request
    requirement
    suggestion
    tendency
    wish

  4. 不定詞片語經常跟在某些形容詞的後面。在這種情況中,不定詞係扮演形容詞補語的角色 (這並非名詞功能,但為了方便討論,我們只好將它放在這裡討論)。
    1. She was hesitant to tell the coach of her plan.
    2. She was reluctant to tell her parents, also.
    3. But she would not have been content to play high school ball
      forever.

    底下為通常應用於這種結構的形容詞列表。

    ahead
    amazed
    anxious
    apt
    ashamed
    bound
    careful
    certain
    content
    delighted
    determined
    disappointed
    eager
    eligible
    fortunate
    glad
    happy
    hesitant
    liable
    likely
    lucky
    pleased
    proud
    ready
    reluctant
    sad
    shocked
    sorry
    surprised
    upset

  5. 雖然不定詞不會出現在下面的情況中,但我們經常可以見到動名詞扮演介系詞之受詞的角色:
    1. She wrote a newspaper article about dealing with college recruiters.
    2. She thanked her coach for helping her to deal with the pressure.

     

  6. 最後,不定詞和動名詞都可以做為直接受詞:我們將在下面做進一步的討論。

以其他動詞型態做為受詞的動詞被稱為連鎖動詞 (catenatives)。連鎖動詞的後面可能接一長串的其他動詞型態,構成連鎖結構,如 "We agreed to try to decide to  stop eating between meals." 連鎖動詞亦具有敘述心智過程和決定的特性。

雖然某個動詞的後面應該接動名詞還是不定詞,對英語為母語的人士而言幾乎不是問題,但對英語為第二語言的學生來說可能非常複雜。為什麼我們都是用 decide to run, 而從不用 decide running? 相對地,為什麼我們都是用 avoid running,而從不用 avoid to run?最後,我們可以 like running,也可以 like to run。顯然地,有些動詞接動名詞,有些動詞接不定詞,有些動詞既可以接動名詞,也可以接不定詞。下面的動詞列表應可協助您瞭解在選擇動名詞或不定詞時所要遵守的一些規則。

下表的動詞後面接不定詞。We decided to leave. He manages, somehow, to win. It is  threatening to rain. 注意:這些動詞中有許多 (並非全部) 係表示潛在的未來事件。

下表的動詞中有些可以接動名詞,如果它們係在敘述「真實的、明顯的或實現的動作」的話。We love running. They began farming the land. 關於這一點,我們在下面也有討論。

情緒 (情感)
care
desire
hate
hate
like
loathe
love
regret
yearn
選擇或意向
agree
choose
decide
expect
hope
intend
need
plan
prefer
prepare
propose
refuse
want
wish
開始,完成,未完成
begin
cease
commence
fail
get
hesitate
manage
neglect
start
try
undertake
心智過程
forget
know how
learn remember
要求和保證
demand
offer
promise
swear
threaten
vow
不及物動詞
appear
happen
seem tend
其他
afford
arrange
claim
continue
pretend
wait

下表的動詞後面通常接不定詞,但它們亦接第二個受詞。We asked the intruders to  leave quietly. They taught the children to swim. The teacher convinced his students to try  harder.

下表中藍色加星號的動詞也可以遵循上表的動詞的模式 (換言之,第二個受詞可有可無)。We all wanted to go. They promised to be home early.

傳達,通告
advise
ask*
beg
*
challenge
command
convince
forbid
invite
order
permit
persuade
promise*
remind
require
tell
warn
urge
教授,指導
encourage
help
instruct
teach
train
致使,起因
allow
cause
choose
force
get
hire
need*
would like
*
其他
dare*
expect
*
trust
prepare*
want*

在許多慣用語或成語中,動名詞都是伴隨在 to go 這個動詞型態之後:Let's go  shopping. We went jogging yesterday. She goes bowling every Friday night.

下列動詞後面接動名詞。Did I mention reading that novel last summer? I recommend  leaving while we can. I have quit smoking. 這些動詞都傾向於敘述真實的事件。

開始,完成,未完成
anticipate
avoid
begin
cease
complete
delay
finish
get through
give up
postpone
quit
risk
start
stop
try
傳達,通告
admit
advise
deny
discuss
encourage
mention
recommend
report
suggest
urge
持續的動作
continue
can't help
practice
involve
keep
keep on
情緒 (情感)
appreciate
dislike
enjoy
hate
like
love
mind
don't mind
miss
prefer
regret
can't stand
resent
resist
tolerate
心智過程
anticipate
consider
forget
imagine
recall
remember
see
can't see
understand

下表的動詞後面可以接不定詞或動名詞,而兩個句子的意思幾乎沒有差別。I like  to play basketball in the park. I like playing basketball in the park.

attempt
begin
continue
hate
like
love
neglect
prefer
regret
can't stand
stand
start

下表的動詞後面可以接不定詞或動名詞,但意思並不相同。 I stopped smoking 與 I  stopped to smoke 的意思截然不同。不定詞型態通常在敘述一種潛在的未來動作。

forget remember stop

最後,下列的動詞後面接動名詞或簡單動詞且需要第二個主詞。I saw the team  losing its composure. I overheard my landlord discussing a rent increase. (I heard Bill  sing/singing.) 這些動詞與感官有關。

與感官有關的動詞
feel
hear
listen to
look at
notice
observe
overhear
see
watch

 

所有格與動名詞

"I can't stand him singing in the shower." 與 "I can't stand his singing in the shower." 我們到底應該說哪一句才好?你必須確定令你討厭的人或事:是「他」這個人,還是他「在洗澡時唱歌」(一邊洗澡一邊唱歌) 這件事,或是他「唱歌」令你無法忍受?最大的可能性是後者,是他「唱歌」令你厭煩。所以我們應該說 "I can't stand  his singing in the shower." 一般常見的情況是:當動名詞前面為名詞或代名詞時,這名詞或代名詞幾乎都是以所有格的型態出現。這尤其適用於正式文章的寫作。

這個規則也有例外。(哪種語言的規則沒有例外?)

  • 當動名詞之前的名詞被其他字所修飾時,該名詞必須以一般型態出現,而非所有格。
    1. Federico was pleased by Carlos's making the Dean's List for the  first time. (註:Dean's List 是指大學在學期或學年末所列出的成績優秀學生名單)
    2. Federico was pleased by Carlos, his oldest son, making the Dean's  List for the first time.
  • 當動名詞之前的名詞為複數名詞、集合名詞或抽象名詞時,該名詞必須以一般型態出現,而非所有格。
    1. Professor Villa was amazed by her students working as hard as they  did.
    2. The class working collaboratively was somebody else's idea.
    3. It was a case of old age getting the better of them.
  • 有些情況會出現所有格與動名詞的不當組合,這尤其經常發生在牽涉到不定代名詞的情況。
    1. I was shocked by somebody's making that remark.
      a.句若改成 b.句就好多了...
    2. I was shocked that somebody would make that remark.

Guide to Grammar and Writing